Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview
Each year, millions of adults aged 65 and older fall. Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries, such as hip fractures and head traumas, and can increase the risk of early death. Fortunately, falls are a public health problem that is largely preventable.
AIP’s highest goal is concern for your safety, and wellbeing. With our help you can prevent your possible fall and feel safe in your home.
How big is the problem?
- One out of three older adults (those aged 65 or older) falls each year but less than half talk to their healthcare providers about it.
- Among older adults, falls are the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries.
- In 2013, 2.5 million nonfatal falls among older adults were treated in emergency departments and more than 734,000 of these patients were hospitalized.
- In 2012, the direct medical costs of falls, adjusted for inflation, were $30 billion.
What outcomes are linked to falls?
- Twenty to thirty percent of people who fall suffer moderate to severe injuries such as lacerations, hip fractures, and head traumas. These injuries can make it hard to get around or live independently, and increase the risk of early death.
- Falls are the most common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI).
- In 2000, 46% of fatal falls among older adults were due to TBI. If you hit your head, you should report difficulty with speech or balance, or limb weakness to your doctor.
- Most fractures among older adults are caused by falls. The most common are fractures of the spine, hip, forearm, leg, ankle, pelvis, upper arm, and hand.
- According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, almost one in ten people who fracture a hip die within a month.
- Many people who fall, even if they are not injured, develop a fear of falling. This may result in fall-related psychological aftereffects – fear, insecurity, and depression, all of which may cause them to limit their activities, which leads to reduced mobility and loss of physical fitness, and in turn increases their actual risk of falling.
Who is at risk?
- The death rates from falls among older men and women have risen sharply over the past decade.
- In 2011, about 22,900 older adults died from unintentional fall injuries.
- Men are more likely than women to die from a fall. After taking age into account, the fall death rate in 2011 was 41% higher for men than for women.
- Older whites are 2.7 times more likely to die from falls as their black counterparts.
- Rates also differ by ethnicity. Older non-Hispanics have higher fatal fall rates than Hispanics.
- People age 75 and older who fall are four to five times more likely than those age 65 to 74 to be admitted to a long-term care facility for a year or longer.
- Rates of fall-related fractures among older women are more than twice those for men.
- Over 95% of hip fractures are caused by falls. In 2010, there were 258,000 hip fractures and the rate for women was almost twice the rate for men.
- White women have significantly higher hip fracture rates than black women.
How can older adults prevent falls?
Older adults can stay independent and reduce their chances of falling. They can:
- Exercise regularly. It is important that the exercises focus on increasing leg strength and improving balance, and that they get more challenging over time. Tai Chi programs are especially good.
- You can also improve your balance and strength with several at-home exercises, such as heel-to-toe walking, leg lifts performed while holding onto the back of a chair , and practicing standing on one foot.
- Ask their doctor or pharmacist to review their medicines—both prescription and over-the counter—to identify medicines, or combinations of medications, whose side effects or interactions can cause problems such as dizziness or decreased alertness.
- Have their eyes checked by an eye doctor at least once a year and update their eyeglasses to maximize their vision. Consider getting a pair with single vision distance lenses for some activities such as walking outside.
- Make their homes safer by reducing tripping hazards, adding grab bars inside and outside the tub or shower and next to the toilet, adding railings on both sides of stairways, and improving the lighting in their homes.
To lower their hip fracture risk, older adults can:
- Get adequate calcium and vitamin D—from food and/or from supplements.
- Do weight bearing exercise, increasing muscle strength also increases bone strength.
- Get screened and, if needed, treated for osteoporosis
Have Aging in Place specialists come to your home and help assess the fall risk, and suggest solutions.